Contamination of stream fish by plastic waste in the Brazilian Amazon

Catégorie : Impacts de la Pollution Plastique
Date :9 octobre 2020
Gomes Ribeiro-Brasil, Danielle Regina; Torres, Naiara Raiol; Picanco, Ana Beatriz; Sousa, David Silva; Ribeiro, Vanessa Serrao; Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Assis Montag, Luciano Fogaca de.
Environmental Pollution : 266
Pollution by plastics is a global problem, in particular through the contamination of aquatic environments and biodiversity. Although plastic contamination is well documented in the aquatic fauna of the oceans and large rivers of the world, there are few data on the organisms of headwater streams, especially in tropical regions. In the present study, we evaluated the contamination of small fish by plastics in Amazonian streams. For this, we evaluated the shape and size, and the abundance of plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills of 14 fish species from 12 streams in eastern Brazilian Amazon. We used a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) to compare the levels of contamination among species and between organs. Only one individual of the 68 evaluated (a small catfish Mastiglanis cf. asopos) contained no plastic particles, and no difference was found in the contamination of the gills and digestive tract. However, Hemigrammus unilineatus presented less contamination of both the gills and the digestive tract than the other species, while Polycentrus schomburgkii had less plastic in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas Crenicichla regani and Pimelodella gerii both had a larger quantity of plastic adhered to their gills in comparison with the other species. Nanoplastics and microplastics adhered most to the gills, while plastic fibers were the most common type of material overall. This is the first study to analyze plastic contamination in fish from Amazonian streams, and in addition to revealing high levels of contamination, some species were shown to possibly be more susceptible than others. This reinforces the need for further, more systematic research into the biological and behavioral factors that may contribute to the greater vulnerability of some fish species to contamination by plastics. Amazonian stream fish show contamination by plastics. The species respond differently. The smaller the particle, the easier it is to adhere to the gills.