Conversion of Waste Polypropylene Plastic into Fuel

Catégorie : Valorisation Energétique des Déchets Plastiques
Date :28 août 2020
Avis TSC : L’utilisation des objets en matière plastique est un problème dans nos pays occidentaux où l’on constate une évolution en forte hausse. Cependant, elle est encore plus massive dans les pays émergents. Cet article présente l’utilisation des déchets plastiques au Bangladesh, où la quantité de plastique utilisé a été multiplié par 90 en quelques décades. La gestion des déchets n’étant pas totalement déployée sur le pays, il en résulte une accumulation dans l’environnement qui est en forte croissance. Les auteurs présentent ici la possibilité de convertir ces déchets en carburant par pyrolyse. Si la totalité des déchets plastiques produits dans le pays était convertie cela pourrait subvenir à peu près à 20 % de la consommation actuelle en carburant du pays. Cette technologie pose toutefois le problème de la qualité des carburants produits qui sont en général peu raffinés et nécessitent des motorisations suffisamment flexibles pour les accepter.
Jannat, Mahbuba; Akter, Sharmin; Ehsan, Md.
Second International Conference on Material Science, Smart Structures and Applications (Icmss-2019) : 2121
Plastic is made from wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. The yearly use of plastics in Bangladesh has grown to 12,00,000 metric tons in 2018. A part of it is recycled but Bangladesh still generates 8,00,000 tons of plastic wastes every year. Disposal of plastic is of great environmental concern now-a-days, as it seizes centuries to decompose if left at its own. Conversion of waste plastic to fuel oil mitigates both plastic pollution problem and fuel crisis. This study focuses on the thermal degradation of polypropylene plastic wastes by pyrolysis process without any catalyst to produce fuel oil. A small scale batch type set up was built to perform thermal degradation of plastic. Polypropylene plastic wastes were cleaned, shredded and pyrolysed from 300-400 degrees C for 60 minutes in this setup. The yield products were liquid fuel oil, gas and black solid plastic residue. These pyrolysed products were collected and characterized by different experimental and analytical methods. The conversion efficiency of oil achieved by the set up was 78% by mass. 73% plastic waste volume reduction was obtained by converting it into fuel oil from solid waste. Equivalent energy output calculated from measured heating value of pyrolytic oil which was obtained from 60 minutes pyrolysis was 12.8MJ/kg. Properties of the fuel oil produced such as – calorific value, viscosity, density, flash point and water content were measured and all of these properties were found to be very close to that of diesel and octane.The products obtained have potential values for further use as fuel oil, lubricating oil, diesel supplement etc which may provide solution as alternative energy resource.