Determination of Emerging Contaminants in Cereals by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Catégorie : Impacts de la Pollution
Date :30 octobre 2020
Albero, Beatriz; Luis Tadeo, Jose; Ana Perez, Rosa.
Frontiers in chemistry : 8
Cereals are staple foods for human consumption in both developed and developing countries. In order to improve agricultural outputs, resources like reclaimed water for irrigation and biosolids and manure as fertilizers are frequently used, although they may increase the input of contaminants that can potentially be absorbed by crops and enter the food chain. Emerging contaminants (human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, personal care products, surfactants, plasticizers, and industrial additives, among others) are continuously introduced in the environment from a variety sources and these contaminants may enter the food chain through plant uptake. In this study, an analytical method, based on ultrasound-assisted extraction and dispersive solid-phase cleanup, was developed for the determination of emerging contaminants from different classes in four highly consumed cereal grains (wheat, oat, barley, and rice). These analytes were selected considering the results of our previous studies carried out in soil and vegetables and those frequently detected in real samples were chosen. The target compounds selected were bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), methyl paraben, propyl paraben, linear chain nonylphenol in position 4 (4-n-NP), mixture of ring and chain isomers of NP and six pharmaceutical compounds (allopurinol, mefenamic acid, carbamazepine, paracetamol, diclofenac and ibuprofen). Recoveries ranging from 68 to 119% with relative standard deviations (RSD) <18% were obtained for all the compounds except for allopurinol, with recoveries that ranged from 30 to 66% with RSD <= 12% and the limits of detection achieved ranged from 0.03 to 4.9 ng/g. The method was applied to the analysis of 16 cereal samples, ten were purchased in local supermarkets and the rest were collected directly from agricultural fields, five of which were fertilized with organic amendments. Bisphenol A (BPA) was detected in all samples at levels that ranged from 1.6 to 1,742 ng/g. Bisphenol F, a substitute for BPA, was also found in six samples (up to 22 ng/g). Linear 4-n-NP was found in a reduced number of samples but the mixture of NP isomers was found in all the samples, being the mean concentrations in wheat, barley, oat and rice 49, 90, 142, and 184 ng/g, respectively.