Microplastics (MPs) with an average size of less than 5 mm, along with nanoplastics (NPs) of an average size of fewer than 0.1 mu m are the result of huge plastic waste fragmentation or straight environmental emissions. Pollution from micro- and nanoplastics is a worldwide paradigm that raises environmental and human health concerns. They may also comprise very harmful chemicals that are implemented in plants and animals when MPs/NPs are used that may lead to higher accumulation of these compounds in food chains. In addition, higher surface area-to-volume ratio, characteristic of MPs/NPs can contribute to their potentially harmful impact as other pollutants, like continuous organic contaminants, can also be bio-accumulated and adsorbed. A complex issue correlated with MPs/NPs is their ability to absorb and interact with other common pollutants in the environment, such as metals, pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants. Thus, MPs/NPs can directly influence on destiny and toxicity of these substances to the environment and organisms. In this review, first, we introduce possible sources and formation, their destinies, and environmental impact of MPs/NPs and then explain feasible paths of all these particles entering the human body. Then, the review highlights the effect of MPs/NPs on human health. Finally, it provides a brief summary of the potential as well as the neurological toxicity of MPs/NPs.