Microplastics are considered to be ubiquitous and widespread emerging contaminants. They are persistent in the nature and pose considerable harm to the environment. Their omnipresence is documented in almost all aquatic habitats, several atmospheric and terrestrial environments, and also in human consumables. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the environmental prevalence of the microplastics in all environmental compartments, and their possible adverse impacts. It also presents review of the studies conducted in India and the epitome of potential mitigation measures. The need and direction of future research are highlighted. The review will help in determining the exposure levels, environmental consequences, and risk estimations, and will guide the researchers and policymakers.