Microplastic (MP) pollution has become a global concern. We aim to quantify the extent of MP pollution in the coastal ecosystem of the Port Blair Bay, A&N Islands. Water, sediment, zooplankton, finfish, and shellfish samples were collected from the Port Blair Bay and analyzed for the presence of MP. Average concentrations of MP in water, sediment, zooplankton, finfish, and shellfishes were found to be 0.93 ± 0.59 particles per m3, 45.17 ± 25.23 particles per kilogram, 0.12 ± 0.07 pieces per zooplankter and 10.65 ± 7.83 particles per specimen, respectively. High amount of MP retention was observed in the zooplankton community. Maximum MP ingestion was observed in adult Carangoides malabaricus. Fiber was most abundant in water, sediment, and fish samples, followed by fragment and pellet. However, fragments were predominant in zooplankton. Nylon, acrylic, and ionomer surlyn were most abundant polymer types in the bay environment. These results demand further attention to combat plastic pollution in the coastal ecosystem.