To promote the application of polyamide 6 (PA6) in wood-plastic composites, the negative effects associated with the thermal degradation of plant fibers must be overcome. In this study, waste bamboo fibers were subjected to pyrolysis and ball milling to afford nano bamboo-based biochar (BC), which was subsequently used as reinforcement to prepare PA6/BC nano composites by injection molding. In addition, the processing fluidity, water absorption, mechanical properties, and interface compatibility of PA6/BC composites were discussed. Results revealed that a BC content of less than 30 wt% is beneficial to improve the processing fluidity of the composites. With the increase in the BC content, the density of the PA6/BC composites gradually increased, while the water absorption of the PA6/BC composites gradually decreased, and the maximum decrease was 46%. Compared to that of pure PA6, the mechanical strength of PA6/BC composites was improved by the addition of BC, and the maximum tensile/flexural strength and modulus of PA6/BC composites increased by 41%/72% and 195%/244%, respectively. However, the impact strength decreased by 27%. After immersion treatment, the dimensional stability and mechanical strength of the composites decreased, while toughness improved. At a BC content of less than 40 wt%, BC particles exhibited good dispersibility and wettability in the PA6 matrix, and the rough surface and rich pore structure of BC rendered strong mechanical interlocking effects and good interface compatibility, thereby enhancing the mechanical properties of the composites.