According to the statistics, 8.3 billion metric tonnes of plastics have been produced since 1950s, which is far more than other synthetic materials and the annual production which are about 500 million tonnes per year at present. The production of plastics makes microplastics pollution extremely widespread distribution, which will have a lasting impact on the global environment, especially on the aquaculture systems. And the distribution of the microplastics is extremely imbalanced around the global waters. In the present review, we have summarized the development of aquaculture in the World and China based on the existing data sources. And the total aquaculture production of the World will over 90 million tonnes, which will exceed the capture production in 2020. Aquaculture products will become one of the most important sources of high-quality protein. However, we found that many kinds of microplastics are detected and enriched in both farmed and captured species. Both endogenous and exogenous factors like the use of fishing plastic products, factory farming facility and equipment, natural and synthetic feed, animal health products, aquaculture fortifier and aquatic food additives make accumulation of microplastics easier. In addition, the safety of aquaculture products is closely related to human health because the residues of microplastics in fish leading to various potential hazards. In summary, this paper reviewed the relationship between microplastics and aquaculture, aimed at calling for the rational and restricted use of plastic products in the aquaculture ecosystems.