Microplastic contamination in agroecosystems raises great concerns. Here, we investigated the impacts of mulching and irrigation on microplastic accumulation in cropped soils. Sixty soil samples covering mulching and no-mulching farmlands, and forty-five irrigation water samples were collected for analysis. Microplastics were obtained from the soils using continuous air flotation followed by density separation. Stereomicroscopy and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR) were used for identification. Mulching soils contained larger amounts of microplastics than non-mulching soils, with 571 pieces kg-1 and 263 pieces kg-1, respectively, on average. The abundances of films and fibers were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the mulching soils. Microplastics in the soils and waters were dominated by fragments and fibers, respectively. The particle size of the microplastics in soils mostly ranged from 1 to 3 mm, and primarily from 90 μm to 1 mm in waters. Multiple polymers, e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene, polyester, rayon, acrylic and polyamide, and shapes found in the soil microplastics indicate contributions from irrigation and plastic waste residues other than plastic mulching. Future studies might include the long-term accumulation of microplastics in agroecosystems from multiple sources under intensively managed cropping systems.