Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are substances globally used as flame retardants and plasticizers that have been detected in all environmental compartments. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and sources of ten OPEs in the Piracicaba River Basin (Brazil). Twelve sampling sites were selected in five rivers with different pollution sources; six sampling campaigns were performed encompassing dry and wet seasons. sigma OPEs ranged from 0.12 to 6.2 mu g L-1; the levels in urban areas were higher than in rural and non-urban areas, but no overall tendency concerning the seasonal effect on OPEs concentrations was observed. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) were the most abundant and frequently detected compounds. Nine OPEs were detected at higher concentrations in a site affected by effluents from textile industries. An acute toxicity test usingDaphnia similiswas performed for tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) for the calculation of a preliminary predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The risk quotient (RQ) approach was applied and risk to aquatic environment related to TEHP levels was observed in areas adjacent to textile industries, but more toxicity studies are required for the determination of a more reliable PNEC.