The sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum as a potential biomonitor for microplastics contamination on the Brazilian Amazon coast

Catégorie : Impacts de la Pollution Plastique
Date :17 septembre 2020
Morais, L. M. S.; Sarti, F.; Chelazzi, D.; Cincinelli, A.; Giarrizzo, T.; Martinelli Filho, J. E.
Environmental Pollution : 265
This study reports for the first time the ingestion of meso- (5.01-25 mm) and microplastics (1 mu m-5 mm) by the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum, the most abundant actiniarian species on the Amazon coast. At three sites on the coast of Para, Brazil, anemones were collected from beachrocks in the intertidal zone (30 at each site), measured (pedal disc diameter, mm) and weighed (wet weight, g). The contents of the gastrovascular cavity were extracted and analyzed under a stereoscope. The recovered plastic particles were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Overall, 139 microplastic and 2 mesoplastic items were identified in 68 individuals (75.6%) among the 90 examined, with a mean of 1.6 (+/- 1.5) items per individual. Plastic fibers comprised about 84% of the ingested plastics, followed by fragments (similar to 12%) and films (similar to 4%). Particle diameters ranged from 0.10 to 9.17 mm (1.57 +/- 1.23 mm). A weak positive correlation was found between the weight of anemones and the number of plastic particles in the gastrovascular cavity (p = 0.03) and between the number of prey items and the number of plastic particles in the gastrovascular cavity (p < 0.01). The main polymers identified by FTIR analysis were polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyurethane (PU), polyethylene (PE), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polystyrene (PS) and rayon. Sea anemones ingested significantly more plastic debris at the most urbanized and populous sampling sites. This study provides the first evidence of microplastics contamination of marine invertebrates from the Amazon coast. Abundant species such as B. cangicum have the potential to monitor the levels of plastic contamination in the region. Our results support this potential, as the species showed a high frequency of plastic ingestion and allowed detection of plastic contamination even in the best-preserved area where anemones were collected. (c) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.