Occurrence and removal of polymeric material markers in water environment: a review

Date of publication 3 August 2020

Authors Chrobok, Michal; Czaplicka, Marianna.

Sources Desalination and Water Treatment : 186, 406–417.

DOILink https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2020.25564


Alkylphenols (AP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are chemicals belonging to the endocrine-disrupting compound group. These compounds have a negative influence on the endocrine system of both humans and wildlife. Adverse effects include serious reproductive and developmental disorders, such as feminization of the population, especially in wildlife. AP and BPA are commonly used in household items and industrial applications or as monomers or additives in plastic production. Methods for AP and BPA degradation can be divided into four main groups. In membrane-type processes, the important factor is membrane selection. Good results were obtained with the application of dense nanofiltration or reverse osmosis membranes. The selection of bacterial or fungi species is crucial for biological treatment. Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas sp. are known for their good organic compound degradation capabilities. The oxidation process is based on the proper selection of an oxidation agent and catalyst when needed. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone are often mentioned in the literature. Common catalysts are UV radiation, Fe2+ ions, or oxides of tin, zinc, and titanium. In sorption processes, the selection of the sorbent is important. In the literature, natural materials like sewage sludge or river sediments are often mentioned. An important group is also the carbon-based sorbents like carbon nanotubes or activated carbon. The scope of this work is to present sources of AP and BPA in water matrices, as well as possibilities of AP and BPA removal along with important aspects of the processes.

Comments area

Leave a Reply