The replacement of plastic with eco-friendly and biodegradable materials is one of the most stringent environmental challenges. In this respect, cellulose stands out as a biodegradable polymer. However, a significant challenge is to obtain biodegradable materials for high-end photonics that are robust in humid environments. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of high-quality micro- and nanoscale photonic and plasmonic structures via replica molding using pure cellulose and a blended version with nonedible agro-wastes. Both materials are biodegradable in soil and seawater according to the ISO 17556 standard. The pure cellulose films are transparent in the vis-NIR spectrum, having a refractive index similar to glass. The microstructured photonic crystals show high-quality diffractive properties that are maintained under extended exposure to water. Nanostructuring the cellulose transforms it to a biodegradable metasurface manifesting bright structural colors. A subsequent deposition of Ag endowed the metasurface with plasmonic properties used to produce plasmonic colors and for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.